What is the Noyes Whitney equation used for?

The Noyes-Whitney function is used to represent how the solid material is dissolved into solution, and it is well used in study of drug dynamic.

How is solubility related to bioavailability?

Solubility plays a critical role in drug effectiveness. Without it, a drug substance cannot be absorbed, leading to low bioavailability. Poor solubility of drugs also leads to other issues, such as challenges with metabolism or permeability, interactions with other drugs or the need to extend drug release.

What liquid affects the dissolution rate of pills?

Drug solubility depends on the pH of fluid, temperature, volume, and contents of fluid. The lipophilicity of a drug is also correlated with water solubility. The rate and extent of absorption can be altered by food.

Which form of a drug has greater solubility?

Which form of a drug has greater solubility? Explanation: Anhydrous form of a drug has a greater aqueous solubility than the hydrates. This is because the hydrates are already in interaction with the water and therefore have less energy for crystal breakup.

What does it mean when ions are solvated?

Solvation is the process of attraction and association of molecules of a solvent with molecules or ions of a solute. As ions dissolve in a solvent, they spread out and become surrounded by solvent molecules. Solvation is an important role of a solvent in the corrosion process.

How can you make a drug more soluble?

There are various techniques to enhance the drug solubility such as particle size reduction, nanosuspension, use of surfactants, salt formation, solid dispersion, etc. From this article it may be concluded that solid dispersion is an important approach for improvement of bioavailability of poor water-soluble drugs.

Which polymorphic form of drug has the highest solubility of drug?

Polymorph A is the thermodynamically stable one, but its absorption in humans is significantly lower than that of polymorph B [72], because Form B dissolves faster than Form A, and has much higher solubility [73].

Why drug dissolution is important?

Dissolution testing measures the extent and rate of solution formation from a dosage form, such as tablet, capsule, ointment, etc. The dissolution of a drug is important for its bioavailability and therapeutic effectiveness. Dissolution and drug release are terms used interchangeably.

How can you improve the dissolution of a tablet?

Several technological methods have been reported for improvement of solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs, namely (a) reducing particle size to increase surface area; (b) solubilization in surfactant systems; (c) formation of water soluble complexes; (d) use of prodrug and drug derivatization …

Which drug is water soluble?

Drugs that dissolve in water (water-soluble drugs), such as the antihypertensive drug atenolol, tend to stay within the blood and the fluid that surrounds cells (interstitial space). Drugs that dissolve in fat (fat-soluble drugs), such as the antianxiety drug clorazepate, tend to concentrate in fatty tissues.

What is a solvated molecule?

What is desolvation energy?

The method of desolvation involves drying a sample in a solution. An example of this involves electro-statically bound particles to dissociate by releasing water in an aqueous solution. This method is commonplace in atomic absorption spectroscopy, in which an atomic gas is created through a liquid sample.

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