What are cortical interneurons?
Cortical interneurons (INs) are a diverse group of neurons that project locally and shape the function of neural networks throughout the brain. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that a proper balance of glutamate and GABA signaling is essential for both the proper function and development of the brain.
Where do cortical interneurons come from?
Key Points. In contrast to cortical projection neurons, many cortical interneurons originate in the subcortical forebrain. The primary origins of cortical interneurons in rodents appear to be the caudal and medial ganglionic eminences.
What is the primary function of cortical interneurons?
Cortical interneurons represent 20% of the cells in the cortex. These cells are local inhibitory neurons whose function is to modulate the firing activities of the excitatory projection neurons.
What are some characteristics of an interneuron?
Structure and Function Local interneuron has short axons and form circuits with nearby neurons to analyze small pieces of information. Relay interneurons have long axons and connect circuits of neurons in one region of the brain with those in other regions.
Where are the cell bodies of interneurons located?
the spinal cord
Location. In particular, the cell bodies of the spinal interneurons are found in the grey matter of the spinal cord, which also contains the motor neurons.
What is the ganglionic eminence?
The ganglionic eminence (GE) is a transitory structure in the development of the nervous system that guides cell and axon migration. It is present in the embryonic and fetal stages of neural development found between the thalamus and caudate nucleus.
How are interneurons activated?
More interneurons are activated when a response to stimuli is required to be complex. Interneurons are utilized in all higher functions, including learning, memory, cognition, and planning. Nearly all interneurons are multipolar. However, they are of many different sizes and have different patterns of fiber branches.
Where are interneurons found in the body and what is their function?
Interneurons, which are found only in the CNS, connect one neuron to another. They receive information from other neurons (either sensory neurons or interneurons) and transmit information to other neurons (either motor neurons or interneurons).
Are interneurons excitatory or inhibitory?
Interneurons in the CNS are primarily inhibitory, and use the neurotransmitter GABA or glycine. However, excitatory interneurons using glutamate in the CNS also exist, as do interneurons releasing neuromodulators like acetylcholine.