What does systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve mean?
Systolic anterior motion (SAM) is defined as displacement of the distal portion of the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve toward the left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.
How do you treat systolic anterior motion?
Rapid injection of an esmolol bolus can quickly resolve the systolic anterior motion and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction if it is the result of haemodynamic factors, alleviating hyperdynamic left ventricular conditions and their contribution to dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and helping …
What is chordal systolic anterior motion?
Systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral chordae tendineae (chordal SAM) is commonly observed with septal hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and may cause severe hypotension by obstructing the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) during the systole phase.
What does chordal Sam mean?
Chordal SAM was defined as systolic anterior motion involving only the chordae tendineae (Fig. 2) . The LVOT area was calculated from the length of the LOVT in the parasternal long- axis view at early systole.
Does Sam cause mitral valve regurgitation?
Background—In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a spectrum of mitral leaflet abnormalities has been related to the mechanism of mitral systolic anterior motion (SAM), which causes both subaortic obstruction and mitral regurgitation.
How is Sam heart treated?
A stepwise approach is advocated consisting of medical therapy, followed by aggressive volume loading and beta-adrenoceptor blockade. Surgery is the final option. The correct choice of surgical technique requires an understanding of the anatomical substrate of SAM.
Why does systolic anterior motion occur?
Systolic anterior motion is a result of complex geometric interaction between mitral valve components requiring significant Venturi and drag forces in the presence of good functioning left ventricle (LV). Disruption in dynamic mitral valvular apparatus, eg, after mitral valve repair can produce SAM.
What is systolic movement?
Systole is when the heart muscle contracts. When the heart contracts, it pushes the blood out of the heart and into the large blood vessels of the circulatory system. From here, the blood goes to all of the organs and tissues of the body. During systole, a person’s blood pressure increases.
Can you live a long life with dilated cardiomyopathy?
Clinically, DCM is characterized by a progressive course of ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction. The life expectancy is limited and varies according to the underlying etiology with a median survival time of about 5 years after diagnosis.