What fungus causes chromoblastomycosis?
The fungi most commonly reported as causing chromoblastomycosis are F pedrosoi, C carrionii, and P verrucosa. A small number of cases due to F compacta, R aquaspersa, and different species of Exophiala have also been reported. In 2007, Chaetomium funicola was identified as a cause of chromoblastomycosis in Panama.
What is the type of lesions mostly seen in chromoblastomycosis?
Chromoblastomycosis lesions are polymorphous: verrucous, nodular, tumoral, plaque-like, and atrophic. It is an occupational disease that predominates in tropical and subtropical regions, but there have been several reports of cases in temperate regions.
Who discovered chromoblastomycosis?
The name “chromoblastomycosis” was employed for the first time in 1922 by Terra et al. to differentiate a cutaneous fungal disease observed in Brazil from the confusing clinical syndrome known as “verrucous dermatitis” (28).
How is chromoblastomycosis treated?
Although early, small lesions of chromoblastomycosis can be treated with surgical removal, long-term oral antifungal therapy is the treatment of choice for more extensive disease. Severe disease is often refractory to treatment.
How is chromoblastomycosis diagnosed?
Diagnosis is confirmed by the observation of muriform cells in tissue and the isolation and the identification of the causal agent in culture. Chromoblastomycosis still is a therapeutic challenge for clinicians due to the recalcitrant nature of the disease, especially in the severe clinical forms.
Can chromoblastomycosis be prevented?
Lack of protective shoes, gloves or garments and poor nutrition and hygienic habits are risk factors associated with chromoblastomycosis. Prevention is difficult, but it is useful to advise people not to walk barefoot in areas where infection has been detected. Treatment should begin as soon as possible.
Is there a cure for chromoblastomycosis?
Can chromoblastomycosis be cured?
How common is chromoblastomycosis?
Characteristics of population affected by chromoblastomycosis. In tropical and subtropical countries, the infection is more prevalent in males 30–50 years of age engaged in agriculture (approximately 70% of cases) [37, 46]. For instance, in Madagascar, 87% of patients with CBM are males above 16 years of age .
Which is the effective treatment for chromoblastomycosis?
Treatment of Chromoblastomycosis Itraconazole is the most effective drug for chromoblastomycosis, although not all patients respond. Flucytosine is sometimes added to prevent relapse. Amphotericin B is ineffective. Anecdotal reports suggest that posaconazole, voriconazole, or terbinafine may also be effective.